img journal <p><strong>img journal – ISSN 2724-2463 </strong> is an open access and interdisciplinary scientific publication that explores the interconnections between the different fields of images, imagery, and imagination.</p> en-US <p>Unless otherwise stated, the copyrights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p><div><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div><p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> (<a href="">full legal code</a>). <br /> See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>.</p> (img journal) (OJS Support) Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Editorial Manuela Ghizzoni, Elena Musiani Copyright (c) 2021 Manuela Ghizzoni, Elena Musiani Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Beyond the Truth. Copy/False/Fake Alessandro Luigini, Valeria Menchetelli Copyright (c) 2021 Valeria Menchetelli; Alessandro Luigini Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The 'Original' Fake <p>The images that populate our memory, even those that belong to the personal sphere, have been filtered and manipulated by the process of reproduction. They are copies, in some cases copies of copies. Our collective imagination is based on the vision of fakes: multimedia, three-dimensional, virtual reproductions, augmented reality.<br />The course of the research, initially, envisages the description of a theoretical reference framework that includes the declinations of the notion of copy and the related fruition rituals. In the second part the research exemplifies the theoretical framework, through one emblematic and iconic case study: <em>Las Majas al Balcón</em>. The case shares the notion of copying, in fact it has entered the collective imagination thanks to its reproductions and/or falsifications. It is now virtually invisible, because it belongs to a private collection, and it is one of Goya’s best known paintings.</p> Marinella Arena Copyright (c) 2021 Marinella Arena Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Ercole Farnese 4.0. Copy of Copy of Copy (almost Original) <p>The essay reconstructs the initiatives promoted in the field of art copies from the Fine Arts Academy “Pietro Vannucci” of Perugia: an artistic cenacle founded in 1573 that, even today, boasts a plaster cast gallery in which hundreds of plaster casts of author statues are exhibited –from Michelangelo Buonarroti to Antonio Canova. In recent years these initiatives were sealed by the idea of designing the concept of a multimedia replica of its own plaster cast gallery and, moreover, by the idea of placing at the entrance to the headquarters, between the façade of the Oratory of San Bernardino and the façade of the church of San Francesco al Prato, a one-to-one scale copy of the plaster cast of the <em>Ercole Farnese</em> –one of the most famous statues of antiquity– made by 3D printing with polylactic acid filaments: a bold hypothesis, not only from an environmental point of view, because it has an undoubted visual impact, but also and above all from a cultural perspective, because mistrust of the artistic value of copies continues to persist even in an era, such as the present, characterised by maximum technical reproducibility.</p> Paolo Belardi Copyright (c) 2021 Paolo Belardi Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Representation between Art and Imitative Structure <p>The present paper investigates the role of the image as a visual translation of concrete or mental realities, focusing in particular on the dichotomy between imitative function and intrinsic artistic expression. Since the image can be both a copy of a model and a representation with its own autonomy, it is therefore configured in some cases as a subordinate product to the original, in others as a work of art in itself. The representation then oscillates between true and false, translating into images quotes and references to concrete reality and –at the same time– to other images, which in turn become a source of inspiration. Retracing this dual nature through emblematic examples, the authors highlight the close integration of imitative and artistic functions of the image focusing on the different meaning connected to them. Attention also comes to the multiplicity that derives from the close relationship between reality and the image of reality that only the observer is able to recompose.</p> Stefano Chiarenza, Barbara Messina Copyright (c) 2021 Stefano Chiarenza, Barbara Messina Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Citation, Tribute, Remake, Plagiarism. Overlaps and Borders in Movies <p><em>Mimesis</em> is the basic principle of all arts. Visual arts, in particular, alternate between imitation of reality and attempt to represent in a symbolic or allusive way. In both cases, the theme of mimesis remains central, and the concepts of inspiration, model, copy, and plagiarism evolve in parallel with the history of art. In cinematography, the theme of imitation is one of the most debated. The chances of copy are innumerable in movies industry, both in sincere admiration of a young author for the works of a great master and in desire to exploit commercially an intuition of others; but we must also admit that the nuances between inspiration and plunder are numerous. This essay analyses overlaps and boundaries between four variations on the theme of copying in the cinematography: citation, tribute, remake, plagiarism. These four key concepts are analysed by relating them and at the same time trying to highlight differences and common elements. The analysis is carried out from a conceptual point of view and through the comparison of films in which the theme of imitation is particularly evident.</p> Daniele Colistra Copyright (c) 2021 Daniele Colistra Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Forgery and Narrative in Architecture Design Communication <p>Although in the wake of the tradition of photomontage and collage, the communication Alberto Campo Baeza and Raphaël Gabrion adopted to present their architectural proposal for a new facility building for the Louvre in Liévin demonstrates an innovative connotative power of intertextual elements added to the basic renderings. In particular, artworks and cinema-referred elements added to the perspective renderings are used to unfold their semantic range, to orient the reception and to discuss on the threshold between fictive and scientific, where forgery can be paradoxically used to tell the truth.</p> Fabio Colonnese Copyright (c) 2021 Fabio Colonnese Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Sum or Total? The Case of the Cistercian Monastery in Miami <p>As an architecture is moved, the relationship with the place it was designed for is lost. Its original functions are altered and it acquires novel meanings, concerning with not only the new context but the act of transfer itself. Its authenticity seems, on the one hand, to be guaranteed by the original materials, while, on the other hand, it is challenged by the different form and reception, which is somehow mediated by the idea of its previous, pure existence. The story of the ancient Spanish monastery purchased by William Randolph Hearst in 1925, dismantled, shipped and rebuilt in Miami, Florida decades later is here described, analysed and discussed as a sort of borderline of the idea of ‘fake’, by focusing on the historical, epistemological and symbolic value of interventions that challenge the ‘nature’ of architecture itself.</p> Fabio Colonnese, Maria Grazia D'Amelio, Lorenzo Grieco Copyright (c) 2021 Fabio Colonnese, Maria Grazia D'Amelio, Lorenzo Grieco Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Cultural Value of the Copy in the Museum Domain <p>The essay aims to analyse past and present methods of reality simulation critically. It proposes a non-exhaustive classification of 2D and 3D digital artefacts mainly concerning the cultural heritage field and the museum domain, ranging from reconstructing virtual environments to the most recent computer graphics trends. Moreover, the use of digital copies, sometimes accompanied by their 3D prints, was complementary to the original artefacts’ vision. Starting from some well-known examples of the past up to the most recent artefacts produced in recent years, the contribution of reality simulation methods intends to reflect the different meanings that the copy can take other than its economic value. Value is not easily measurable. It refers to culture and new opportunities for dissemination.</p> Massimiliano Lo Turco, Elisabetta Caterina Giovannini, Andrea Tomalini Copyright (c) 2021 Massimiliano Lo Turco, Elisabetta Caterina Giovannini, Andrea Tomalini Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Manipulation, Retouching and Staging: The Debate on Veracity of Documentary Images in Digital Era. Some Cases Compared <p>The article addresses the issue of the alteration of images in the digital age, and therefore the question of the authenticity and truthfulness of documentary photographs, through the analysis of some cases that involved affirmed reporters (awarded on the occasion of international contests by major photojournalistic institutions) and their professional integrity; vicissitudes that had important aftermaths and stimulated (especially on websites and blogs) technical, deontological and theoretical debates concerning the legitimacy of manipulative operations and their ethical implications.</p> Edoardo Maggi Copyright (c) 2021 Edoardo Maggi Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Cultural Reception of Reproduction in the 21st Century. Canova, Piranesi and the Use of Technology for Original Creations <p>The present work reflects on the possibilities that the technologies of data acquisition and three-dimensional reproduction of artistic objects offer for the generation of never built historical artworks. The research focuses on the scientific and manufacturing labours carried out by Factum Arte on the work of Canova and Piranesi. Through the projects of materialization of some pieces that were not executed by the Veneto artists in their age, we revaluate the changing consideration of the reproduction of the artistic work and we analyse the parameters that allow considering the originality in the creations of historical artefacts in our present time.</p> Elena Merino Gómez, Fernando Moral Andrés, Chiara Casarin Copyright (c) 2021 Elena Merino Gómez, Fernando Moral Andrés, Chiara Casarin Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Aura, Provenance, Fakes & Forgeries. Exploring the Pitfalls of Provenance and how this Can Enhance the Agenda of Fakes and Forgeries in the Art World <p>The provenance of a work of art, that is, the documentation of its ownership history, is a vital tool in determining authenticity and legitimacy. Deriving from the French <em>provenir</em> meaning ‘to come from’, a sound provenance record functions as a prerequisite for authenticating a work; without one, the likelihood of it being accepted by any reputable collection or dealer is mprobable. What happens, however, when a fake work of art is accompanied by a fake provenance record?<br />This essay shall take the ‘master scam’ conceived by John Myatt and John Drewe, notorious for infiltrating some of the world’s largest museums and galleries with fake artworks and provenance records, as an example to aptly illustrate such pitfalls of provenance. Emphasising seminal theories of aura and authorship through an analysis of the work of Walter Benjamin and Michel Foucault, it is argued that knowledge of such provenance holds the capability of psychologically altering the viewers perception of the work itself. Subsequently, utilising provenance in this way can enhance the agenda of fakes and forgeries circulating in the art world, highlighting the need for stronger institutional methodologies in relation to authenticity.</p> Aimee Murphy Copyright (c) 2021 Aimee Murphy Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Using 3D Reproductions of Archaeological Objects in Museum Education Context. A Learning Experience within an Etruscan Musical Collection <p>Archaeological museum exhibitions are made up of collections that represent complex cultural systems. Consequently, museum education has the role of mediating these objects to different categories of users, clarifying the relationships between the collections and the cultural system they belong to. However, for some kinds of pieces, such as musical ones, this activity includes a ‘performative’ part, where the object is an instrument to perform an action. For centuries, museum studies have been split between the conservation of objects and the preservation of their performative capacities and, in the case of musical instruments, in order to use them in educational and research contexts (ICOM CIMCIM, 2019). The<br />use of reproductions, such as digital modeling, has been widely discussed, sometimes controversially; however, scientific studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of active teaching methodologies, such as Object-based Learning, in museum contexts for active users’ engagement (Duhs, 2019), promotion of soft skills (Poce et al., 2020), social inclusion, and well-being (Kador &amp; Chatterjee, 2021). Starting from these assumptions, the paper describes the first results of a museum education pilot study carried out through the 3D-printed reproductions of ancient Etruscan musical instruments. The learning pathway, addressed to primary school pupils, is aimed at the integration and enhancement of 4C skills (Trilling &amp; Fadel, 2009) in education from an inclusive perspective.</p> Antonella Poce, Maria Rosaria Re, Mara Valente, Carlo De Medio Copyright (c) 2021 Antonella Poce Antonella Poce, Maria Rosaria Re, Mara Valente, Carlo De Medio Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 From Authentic to Realistic, from True to Plausible: the Digital Architectural Survey between the Real and the Virtual <p>In the digital survey, the traditional opposition between uniqueness, authenticity, originality of reality and the multifaceted structure of multiplicative reproduction typical of the representation of architecture –through synthetic digital 3D models or realistic ones from SFM, interpretative syntheses of data visualization, physical models from rapid prototyping– it loses definition and becomes more and more vanishing.<br />Although these are technical operations, in fact, in the various processing steps between acquisition and output the data gradually assumes states of greater or lesser proximity to the real data and a variable verisimilitude.<br />The paper investigates in theoretical terms how the conceptual domain of the informative artifact declines the cloud populated by the terms ‘original’ ‘copy’, ‘clone’, ‘reproduction’, ‘model’ and uses the selected case study with technical exemplification, interrogating it innovatively by means of ‘plausible’ optimization by algorithms currently in the betaversion phase of development by the authors.</p> Paola Puma, Giovanni Anzani Copyright (c) 2021 Paola Puma Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 About Buying a Fake Version of a Counterfeit £10 Note <p>During the 2010 documentary <em>Exit Through the Gift Shop</em>, the English artist Banksy, speaking with an altered voice, shows to the cameraman and co-star of the film Thierry Guetta boxes full of fake £10 banknotes. On the note instead of Queen Elizabeth is depicted Lady Diana. After the movie, the <em>Di-Faced Tenner</em> becomes an object particularly coveted by art enthusiasts or simple last hour fans of Banksy. Fake Tenners started circulating on <em>eBay</em>: full-fledged fake fakes. The boundary between authentic and fake in Banksy’s work becomes very blurred. The <em>Di-Faced Tenner</em>’s story becomes just one of many examples of how the whole of the English artist’s work moves on that border, making his fortune, but also that of others. The paper covers the entire history of the Tenner through articles, archive news and specialized forums. The false <em>Di-Faced Tenner</em>, which is the counterfeiting of a counterfeit, is just one of the many pieces that allow the Bristol artist to sell his originals at such high prices. Through the Tenner’s path, the research attempts to demonstrate how the concept of Fake in Banksy’s work is a fundamental aspect of his commercial success.</p> Federico Rebecchini Copyright (c) 2021 Federico Rebecchini Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Seduction or Proof? Revealing Assumptions in the Negotiation of Perceived Reality Through Images <p>Throughout the history of Western thought, images are dismissed in the search for truth claiming their seductive nature (Plinius, 2007) and at the same time they are used as proof e.g., in Geometry (Nelsen, 1999), documentary photography (Sontag, 1973) or political argumentation (King, 2014).<br />All images are objects which represent a selection of what we perceive as reality. They would be clones, if they would represent all aspects of what we can perceive (Jonas, 1961). Some images declare their selective nature of representation. Other images are deceptive because they are pretending to be what they represent. In comparison to language, using propositional argumentation, images can provide evidence (Mersch, 2005). This contribution provides a closer look at how we preconceive the relationship of images to reality.<br />In the first part of the contribution, we refer to experimental drawings of landscapes and portraits. We analyze their relationship to four levels of what we can define as a reality perceived in images. In the second part we continue the inquiry into the relationship between images and reality in the context of architectural photography. We refer to experimental photographic image series, which focus on the materiality of photography and propose to overcome the<br />hierarchical order between original building and fake copy of architecture in the photographic image, by making the photograph to a material object. In a third and final section of the paper the findings of the previous two sections are discussed.</p> Michael Renner, Kambiz Shafei Copyright (c) 2021 Michael Renner, Kambiz Shafei Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Aesthetic of Right. How Historical Fake Feeds Populist Agendas <p>Fake News as propaganda is not a novel creation by the former President of the United States (POTUS) and the use of architecture as propaganda to propel populist agendas is no different. This article will observe two case studies, <em>Skopje 2014 </em>implemented by the nationalist conservative party VMRO-DPMNE of Macedonia and the <em>Promoting Beautiful Federal Civic Architecture </em>Executive Order no. 13967 by Donald Trump, former POTUS. These Two case studies will be discussed in how architecture feeds the populist agendas through two different types of political administration. The term fake will be associated with misinformation, mistruth and through a historical sweep and comparisons. This article argues how the use of neoclassicism as an architectural style outside of its historical context coupled with the political agendas would be considered propaganda and in turn fake.</p> Giuseppe Resta, John Gatip Copyright (c) 2021 Giuseppe Resta, John Gatip Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The “MemO” Project: the Study, Digitalisation and Value Enhancement of Greek and South-Italian Pottery in Veneto. The Issue of Forgery <p>In archaeology, the topic of fakes, copies, and imitations has been around since the 18th century. Recent studies have found that the phenomenon of counterfeit pottery worked in the ancient Greek world is very present in private and public collections, thus showing the extent of an issue that, in fact, pervades the history of archaeology.<br />One of the MemO Project pillars, launched in March 2018 by the Department of Cultural Heritage of the University of Padova, stems from an awareness of this reality. The MemO Project is dedicated to enhancing the effectuation of archaeological artefacts (especially ceramics) within academic training and research.<br />Accessing the technical, formal and iconographic universe of objects made thousands of years ago requires a wide-ranging apprenticeship: this is why the “Laboratory of Authentication of Archaeological Heritage” was created, an absolute novelty in the Italian academic panorama. Through the analysis of concrete cases, teachers and students can work systematically on each artefact using techniques that integrate humanistic diagnostics with the most advanced analytical and digital imaging techniques. The workshop experience is an essential practical activity essential to which students are introduced to the drawing up of concrete expert reports to training increasing professionals to defend the genuineness of art.<br />In addition, all materials inspected in the Laboratory and archived due to forgeries will be included in an accessible database. This tool will contribute to the defence of cultural heritage.</p> Monica Salvadori, Monica Baggio, Luca Zamparo Copyright (c) 2021 Monica Salvadori, Monica Baggio, Luca Zamparo Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Homological Relations Between Graphic-Geometric Descriptive / Projective Models. Principle of Virtual Works in Descriptive Geometry <p>The concept of the model is vast and complex and in its scientific and empirical implications and applications or on an experimental basis refers to various disciplines and knowledge. It essentially concerns questions relating to how to elaborate conjectures, thoughts, observations and geometric graphic operations as well as research spaces where there are considerations that involve and that take as the core of the theme the investigation that directly concerns the concept and the actual implementation of the model. The question relating to the concept of model that can evoke interest and stimulus for further study consists in the fact that thinking about the model in descriptive geometry contains two aspects connected to each other. The first concerns the structure of the representation system, that is the ordering relative to the representation system on which the method is arranged graphically and geometrically; the second concerns the drawn visualization referred to the descriptive procedure of the represented image and attributed to the outlined object. Descriptive geometry virtually creates these elements using the founding principle of projection and section. In fact, modelling through descriptive geometry allows, in its different forms, for the representation of geometric figures constructed through the operations of projection and congruence. This is, therefore, a concept that determines an inseparable unity that allows one to virtually establish the geometric graphic problem parallel to the reality.</p> Andrea Donelli Copyright (c) 2021 Andrea Donelli Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Prospectiva Pingendi, Prospectiva Fingendi. For a History of the Different Rules of Practical Perspective <p>The method of perspective representation has consolidated over time, up to its complete formalization, through a series of important and complementary achievements both in the scientific and artistic fields. While the study of the laws of ancient optics, combined with practical experimentation, slowly contributed to the rigorous formalization of the method in Renaissance intellectual circles, the workshop practice required operational rules that quickly and easily enabled artists to produce images in which the depth of the space and the three-dimensionality of the subjects it contains were evident.<br />The study presented here intends to focus attention on the procedures practiced by artists, with particular attention to perspectives rules that really weren’t , in the scientific sense of the term, but which contributed to establish a shared and<br />widespread basis for the development of sensitivity of seeing and representing in perspective, in the intimate and labile boundary between <em>prospectiva pingendi</em> and <em>fingendi</em>.</p> Jessica Romor Copyright (c) 2021 Jessica Romor Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Once Upon a Time there were Fireworks. The New Nocturnal Drones Light Shows <p>This paper investigates the recent innovative application of drone information technology to create complex visual narratives in the night skies, which refer to the more traditional images made by fireworks.<br />The object of study involves two main topics. The first consists in a critical analysis of bibliographic literature in the field of pyrotechnic art through the consultation of texts from the sixteenth century to the twentieth century. The second is represented by the analysis of the recent digital technique of setting up colored images, created in the night sky by the movement of luminous drones. Compared to fireworks, the attention towards this type of luminous aerial views is decidedly increasing. In this sense, the luminous drones present themselves as alternative fireworks, reusable with countless different visual narratives and three-dimensional choreographies synchronized with musical performances. An increasingly widespread development of this digital display technology is therefore conceivable in the future. Therefore, it is of interest here to analyze the methods of implementation for the construction of the image and the transition from drawing ‘on paper’ to drawing ‘in the sky’.</p> Ornella Zerlenga, Vincenzo Cirillo, Rosina Iaderosa Copyright (c) 2021 Ornella Zerlenga, Vincenzo Cirillo, Rosina Iaderosa Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200