img journal https://img-journal.unibo.it/ <p><strong>img journal – ISSN 2724-2463 </strong> is an open access and interdisciplinary scientific publication that explores the interconnections between the different fields of images, imagery, and imagination.</p> Dipartimento di Scienze Dell’Educazione «Giovanni Maria Bertin» - Università di Bologna en-US img journal 2724-2463 <p>Unless otherwise stated, the copyrights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p><div><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://licensebuttons.net/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div><p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> (<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode">full legal code</a>). <br /> See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>.</p> Editorial https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12243 Matteo Treleani Francesco Zucconi Copyright (c) 2021 Matteo Treleani, Francesco Zucconi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 6 21 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12243 Making Things Talk: Hoard, Collection, Archive https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12268 <p>We store things in our everyday spaces –objects, artefacts or images– that over time betray their original function to become stories. As they accumulate, they lie in wait for someone to find the time to interrogate them and bring them back to the present time.<br>Whether they be large or small, digital or physical, public or private, hoards prevent access to the stories of the things they contain. To give a group of things a structure than can last over time, guaranteeing controlled development and greater access to the stories they contain, hoarding is not enough: the hoarded objects can only begin to talk and tell their story if they are organized into a defined order, if they are curated, either through the work of an archivist or the criteria of a collector.<br>This paper considers the hoarding of objects in every possible sense, reflecting on their narrative power and on the capacity of artefacts to constitute a recorded historical memory, be it personal or collective.</p> Gianluca Camillini Roberto Gigliotti Clara Sestini Copyright (c) 2021 Gianluca Camillini, Roberto Gigliotti, Clara Sestini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 428 441 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12268 Digital Technologies, Motion Recognition and Analysis of Basic Movements for Improving the Teaching of Ballet Dance: the Digital Double of the PASSAY Project https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12269 <p>The paper will describe the PASSAY project, an educational system that helps ballet teachers conveying basic movements to young students thanks to the use of optical tracking devices and the development of a digital double to check and validate movements. The project brings a significant innovation in a discipline that could sometimes look anachronistic in relation to today’s social context in which the technology has a fundamental role. Moreover, its use can help in overcoming distances, like the pandemic is imposing, and engaging more people and young students in particular.</p> Federico Ferrari Marco Medici Andrea Zambonini Copyright (c) 2021 Federico Ferrari, Marco Medici, Andrea Zambonini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 442 473 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12269 Visual Narratives in Videogames: How Videogames Tell Stories Through Graphical Elements https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12270 <p>Videogame is a unique and, at the same time, widely diversified medium. The typical elements of oral, written, musical, visual –but also interactive, spatial, environmental– narration are found merged together in different ways creating 'elsewheres' capable of telling stories and generating experiences in ways that other media are hardly able to replicate. Visual and graphical elements can provide great narrative potentials in videogames as they take part in the wider process of meaning and narrative conveyment, both shaping countless possible scenarios and helping players to make sense of them.This contribution addresses the narrative potential of visual elements in videogames by merging the perspectives of game studies and semiotics. The first part will be devoted to the framing of videogames’ expressive power within the field of game studies and will deal with specific fieldrelated concepts such as procedural rhetoric and evocative narrative elements. The second will delve deep into the understanding of videogames as texts, following the work of Agata Meneghelli and Espen J. Aarseth on the matter. The last part will deal with how videogames can use their visual elements for narrative purposes, providing a framework of five different visual narratives based upon Henri Jenkins’ videogame narrative theory.</p> Alessandro Soriani Stefano Caselli Copyright (c) 2021 Alessandro Soriani, Stefano Caselli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 474 499 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12270 On the Distance and Proximity of a Visual Object as a Chiasmic Notion https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12245 <p>Through a series of short analyses of visual objects the article questions the nature of the dialectic distance/proximity. This dialectic actually concerns a boundary that is at the same time necessary for its articulation, but also only partially expressible within it: the boundary between spectator and observed object/image/medium. By trying to understand what distance is through the definition of some of its opposite forms (immediacy, oceanic feeling, Merleau-pontian flesh of the world), we will look for an answer to this complexity through the intelligence of the images themselves. The chiasmic nature of the relationship between the seeing subject and the seen object therefore seems to become a central theme.</p> Luca Acquarelli Copyright (c) 2021 Luca Acquarelli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 22 39 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12245 Spheres of Action. The Technological Shift of Control https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12246 <p>Social interaction and experience are defined by their action possibilities; that is, they can be analyzed from the perspective of performative control (or lack thereof), namely their dynamics of activity and passivity. What I am able to influence in my environment and what lies beyond my reach determines my disposition and identity in relation to others. In this regard, media and communication devices are not only technical forms capable of modulating physical distance, but they can also transform the structure of action possibilities, rearranging the relationship between who controls whom, between what is possible and not possible. From this standpoint, the present paper will suggest a different take on the well-known dichotomy presence/distance, reframing it through the opposition activity/passivity, or controllability/non-controllability, seen as a relevant perspective in investigating the nature of mediated experience.</p> Emanuele Arielli Copyright (c) 2021 Emanuele Arielli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 40 53 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12246 Separating Bodies, Synchronising Minds: The Role of Digital Technology in Mediating Distance https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12247 <p>Digital technology reconfigures the organization and status of archives. Immersed in the eternal present of their technological youth necessary for their consultation, digital archives potentially no longer bear the marks of time, whereas they show the past. They gain a new appetence, based on the communication uses of the moment. But how then to give them their sense of archive, how to restore their own temporality? The challenge is to allow what we call 'historical empathy' without falling into psychological anachronism. We argue here that the mediatization of digital audiovisual archives must allow us to feel concerned, with the concessions no doubt necessary to the technology and aesthetics of the moment, while perceiving the strangeness of the contents and the definitively bygone aspect of this past. It is therefore a particular critical hermeneutic to build, where mediation must show a past that technology displays in a permanent and persistent contemporaneity.</p> Bruno Bachimont Copyright (c) 2021 Bruno Bachimont https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 54 69 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12247 Photographing Everything and Seeing Nothing: Travel Selfies as Performance, Affirmation of Social-Collective Perception, Spatial Collapse https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12248 <p>In <em>White Noise</em>, Don DeLillo wrote of a welltrafficked tourist destination he called “The Most Photographed Barn in America.” Because it is known through a proliferation of photographs, he suggests, “no one sees the barn” anymore. Thus, making a picture of the barn is not about ‘looking’, but akin to “taking pictures of taking pictures” –a performative mass social ritual of image-making. This behavior also is a relational means of collapsing physical space to connect psychologically and virtually with larger narratives of the human experience for both the selfie subject and their social-media followers. Thus, travel selfies remediate physical and psychological distances and, in Walter Benjamin’s terms, “bring things spatially and humanly closer.” This essay takes a closer look the reframing of both physical distance and psychological presence by digital travel selfies. Rather than being a means of producing subjects/objects to behold and to archive as ‘embalmed’ memories or artifacts of personal history for later review, digital social-media travel photographs are driven by different relational impulses: the collapse of material conceptions of time and space, the performance and promotion of self-as-‘avatar’, the dissolution of psychological space between viewer and subject, and by communal/network participation.</p> Kris Belden-Adams Copyright (c) 2021 Kris Belden-Adams https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 70 81 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12248 Semiotics of Distances in Virtual and Augmented Environments https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12249 <p>The interpretations of communication practices technologically mediated by immersive devices insist on the theme of distance to highlight prototypical aspects of mediation, from the rarefaction of enunciative and referential distance, to that which leads to the solipsistic isolation of the user behind a screen. Tracing the semantic articulation of these interpretations, the contribution intends to place particular emphasis on the media of virtual and augmented reality, and on how they remedy the concept of distance by investing it in new meaning. In particular, we will focus on the illusory cancellation of the distance that occurs during an immersive experience and the establishment of a critical distance in the user, linked to the emergence of a meta experiential competence, by means of the installation of an interstitial device such as the prosthesis and the interface.</p> Federico Biggio Copyright (c) 2021 Federico Biggio https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 82 103 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12249 Close-Up-Ness: Masks, Screens, and Cells https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12250 <p>The pandemic reshapes not only our habits, but also our environment. It does so by supporting the creation of existential bubbles –often in the form of restrained cells– in which we shrink our range of action, but also in which we can feel safe. And it does so mostly thanks to two media that the pandemic brings to the fore and that deeply affect their users’ spatial perception: the mask and the screen. I will start from these media and their ability to remediate our usual spatial coordinates, and then conclude with the bubble and the cell as an increasingly mediated form of spatiality.</p> Francesco Casetti Copyright (c) 2021 Francesco Casetti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 104 117 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12250 The Distances of Presence: What Does It Mean to Be Online and Offline with Others? https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12251 <p>The experience of confinement and the current distancing measures keep showing up the paradoxes of distance, its constraints and its resources. Social distancing mobilises a number of technological, physical and semiotic mediations. In this way social distancing makes us see how presence is constructed, thus revealing the paradox that presence is only the effect of the organisation of several distances. Presence is always an effect of distance. Presence is the effect of differences, mediations, distances, which as a whole constitute what I call ‘play’ (or jeu), in the French sense of the word il y a du jeu, or the notion of play in terms of having slack or space to play with, meaning that there is a gap, an interstice, a delay. In order to have presence, you have to be able to create the conditions for this being ‘in between’, and this is exactly what the social uses of digital technology do. There is play, and presence consists in the harmonisation –always laborious and never finished– of these spatio-temporal disjunctions.</p> Peppe Cavallari Copyright (c) 2021 Peppe Cavallari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 118 135 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12251 So Near, Yet So Far: Migration, the Mediterranean, and a Murderous Modernity https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12252 <p>This article examines the interplay between distance and proximity through the maritime medium of the Mediterranean, today rendered immediate by the ‘foreign’ body of the migrant. What until recently was maintained at a physical and metaphysical distance: colonialism, racial hierarchies and historical amnesia, has suddenly acquired a dramatic presence with an alarming proximity. This postcolonial return operates a cut in the existing epistemological fabric. Understandings of space and time are radically reconfigured. Refused archives emerge. Other genealogies of the present enter the frame. The legal and political premises of Occidental modernity, together with the very idea of liberal democracy and rights, are violently exposed in their brutal limits. In this scenario distance and proximities are measured through mediations drawn from the area of contemporary art and visual culture; these evoke critical considerations on the limits of representation and the politics of registration.</p> Iain Chambers Copyright (c) 2021 Iain Chambers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 136 147 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12252 Takis Zenetos’s Conception of Remoteness: Tele-Operations as Socio-Technological Transformations https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12253 <p>The article explores how Greek architect Takis Zenetos conceptualized the reinvention of the relationship between the living units and home-office conditions. Zenetos, like Yona Friedman was interested in the re-invention of the home-office conditions and in how architecture and urban design strat¬egies could respond to distance working. It also examines how architecture and urban design methods could incorporate the impact of the new conceptions of 'tele-work', 'tele-communication', and 'tele-education' on the relationships between the different social classes. Special attention is paid to how Zenetos envisioned a new mode of thinking urbanism able to be adapted to the continuous mutations in both social and technological domains. Additionally, the article sheds light on Zenetos’s critique of low density living, as well as his concep-tion of circular economy, and his intention to provide environments for heterogeneous patterns of domesticity. It also investigates which were the interdisciplinary references in Zenetos’s writings. Central for the paper is The City and the House of the Future by Zenetos, which aimed at the design of flexible systems for both buildings and infrastructures, and was based on his intention to take into consideration the accelerating mutation of the living units in the cities of the future. Zenetos and Friedman’s intention to provide comfortable, flexible and independent home-office conditions through the design of 'individual living units' using advanced technological achievements could be helpful for better understanding how architecture and urban design could respond to the challenge of providing contemporary home-office conditions.</p> Marianna Charitonidou Copyright (c) 2021 Marianna Charitonidou https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 148 171 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12253 ‘Isolated Together’: Floor Signage in the Times of Pandemic and Partitioning of Our Common Spaces https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12254 <p>The current pandemic has seen the need to adorn public spaces with varied signage, sometimes almost spontaneous or, on the contrary, very elaborate, inviting us to respect distances and spaces specific to each person: what might seem obvious to us, however, refers to a long history of the notation of movement, on the ground or on the page. By comparing a few elements of current signage with a corpus of fencing and dance manuals, or even military treatises, the aim is to grasp the stakes of the visualization of this grid, intermediate and mediator of our relations, which isolates us together in a progressive process of incorporation of images and signs.</p> Pauline Chevalier Copyright (c) 2021 Pauline Chevalier https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 172 197 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12254 Hermann Maertens’ Der Optischemaassstab and the Photography of Architecture https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12255 <p>The work of the German architect Hermann Eduard Maertens (1823-1898), and in particular his research on the <em>Optische-Maassstab</em>, results in a scientific, geometric tool, which was largely considered by urban planners and designers in the 20th century, to link the physiology of vision to the visual harmony of architecture. Based on the concept that distancing is an implicit, unaware consequence of beholder’s specific visual intents, the Optical Scale proposes a triad of angles, to be measured on the vertical plane, through which analyzing or designing become a function of sight. The authors conjecture that some of the arbitrary features of his tool may be attributed to a specific interest in early results of photography of architecture as, although Maertens apparently ignored it, both his approach and photographs share a direct derivation from the tradition of architectural representation.</p> Fabio Colonnese Marco Carpiceci Copyright (c) 2021 Fabio Colonnese, Marco Carpiceci https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 198 215 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12255 Reunited? On the Aesthetics and Rhetoric of Meeting the Dead Through Virtual Reality https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12256 <p>Even though death creates irremediable distance between the living and the departed, human beings have been struggling since ages to bring the absent once again present through any form of available media. In all of the multifarious attempts at making the dead seem as if alive, a distance of the living from the departed was nevertheless retained in that the deceased was not really present, but only ‘presentified’ through a clearly perceivable medium. Yet nowadays, virtual reality promises to finally bridge the gap and make the living cross the border of the afterworld. By focusing on the paradigmatic case study of a South Korean mother who in February 2020 ‘met’ her dead daughter through a VR simulation, this essay takes into account both the visual and the linguistic strategies used to convey the idea of a direct, non-mediated ‘encounter’ or ‘reunion’ between the two. The overall objective of the article is to show that in immersive virtual environments, despite all rhetoric, the dialectic between proximity and distance which is common to the traditional notions of both the dead and the image is not only still present, but also greater than ever before.</p> Pietro Conte Copyright (c) 2021 Pietro Conte https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 216 229 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12256 Remediating the Distance from the Divine: An Archaeological Essay Doctored Photographs-Exhibition Devices-Cinematographic Effect https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12257 <p>Catholicism has always maintained a deep, even ontological, relationship with images and their mediations on account and by virtue of its particular interpretation of the dogma of the Incarnation. And yet, in the second half of nineteenth century –especially ‘after Lourdes’, that is, after the mediatic and popular fortune of the supernatural apparitions to Bernadette Soubirous– the Christian ‘scopic’ drive spread and grew stronger in France, being redefined in new ‘spectacular’ modalities and forms. These aimed to bring the divine closer to the spectator’s physical and subjective experience, in accordance with the broadest process of subjectivation undergone at this time by the experience of seeing –the ‘gaze’– in its whole. My paper will focus, from an archaeological perspective, on three case studies within this remediation turning point: the attempts to photograph a Marian apparition in the small, peripheral village of Tilly-sur-Seulles between 1896 and 1897; the <em>trompe-l’oeil</em> devices employed by the artist Munkácsy and the galleristart dealer Sedelmeyer for the exhibition of lifesized Christological paintings during the 1880s and 1890s that engendered empathic ‘spectatorial’ reactions; and the emergence of the cinematographic apparatus –and of its phenomenological “train effect”– in conjunction with religious imaginaries, persons, uses and places.</p> Ferdinando Gizzi Copyright (c) 2021 Ferdinando Gizzi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 230 257 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12257 Let's Reset The Clock: Family Footage to Remediate Distance Created by Mourning https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12258 <p>From <em>Sherlock Jr.</em> (1924) by Buster Keaton, to <em>Laura</em> by Shuji Terayama (1974), or <em>Videodrome</em> by David Cronenberg (1983), to more recent to <em>Leto</em> by Kirill Serebrennikov (2018), experimental and mainstream cinema has explored crossings through the screen to attempt erasing borders between the viewers and those represented. <em>Let’s Reset the Clock</em> (from French <em>On va remettre les pendules à l’heure</em>), is a two-and-a-half minute colour video that I chose to inscribed in this tradition. In this artwork, split screen visual process is used to remove distances, in order to put two characters –I, the author, and my own grandmother– face to face. As the latter has passed away, <em>Let’s Reset the Clock</em>, constitutes an attempt to remediate distances created by the mourning and a reflection about the way images can bridge those separated by space and by the time.</p> Elsa Gomis Copyright (c) 2021 Elsa Gomis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 258 263 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12258 Apology for Technical Distance: But Beware the Feedback! https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12259 <p>Philosophy boasts an ancient familiarity with the practice of taking distance, which it tendentially conceives as a human condition (in transcendental or anthropological sense): the human being is par excellence an ek-static being. Arguably, this issue is rooted in the fundamental mode of being of the human body (but not only human), and has also a structural and not adventitious relationship to technology. A classic neuroscientific experiment shows that technical distancing can produce unpredictable neuro-plastic effects, as well as a general reorganization of behavior based on the emergence of a meta-operative agency. The agency thus enhanced, however, may in turn give rise to a genuine dialectical opposition between plastic expansion and self-referential contraction of behavior. Some examples will help shed light on this dialectic and eventually highlights some requirements that are necessary, though not sufficient, to adequately cope with the social distancing imposed by the anti-Covid measures managed by digital technologies, transforming the emergency into opportunities for the future.</p> Pietro Montani Copyright (c) 2021 Pietro Montani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 264 281 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12259 Networked Screens: Topologies of Distance and Media Regime of Immunization https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12260 <p>Media theory usually foregrounds transmission, storage, and processing as elementary media operations, neglecting the role media play in protecting living beings. However, the biopolitical and discursive reactions to the spread of Covid-19 have evidenced how protection and establishing safe distances can be implicated in the media process of transmission, which viral infection is, basically. Takingthe window photos reacting to the pandemic-induced isolation in early 2020 as a starting point, I propose to examine the dynamics of distance and proximity by focusing on the protective functionalities of small networked screens. Today, networked screens such as laptops, tablets, smartphones, or television dominate our everyday and personal media use. Their omnipresence and our permanent attachment to them became even stronger during the Corona crisis, giving the screens new political significance. Placed between the self and the world, screens are able to cocreate protective topologies of distance and, thus, to fulfill immunitary functions in addition to their communicative and connective ones. In order to elaborate on this double operativity, I will draw on etymological, media archaeological, and media theoretical understandings of screens as protective ‘shields’, ‘barriers’, and ‘filters’ and combine them with the philosophical perspectives on immunization developed by Roberto Esposito and Peter Sloterdijk.</p> Olga Moskatova Copyright (c) 2021 Olga Moskatova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 282 305 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12260 Human Screens: Bodies, Media and the Meaning of Violence https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12261 <p>From phalanx-fighting, through the use of multiple distance weapons, to the development of airpower and drone warfare in the last century, the history of armed conflicts is one of increasing distance from which people are killed, but also one of increasing weaponization of the human body. Starting from World War I, innocent civilians who were used as human shields to protect military targets in violation of the laws of war were often defined as ‘human screens’. The notion of human screen, I argue in this article, is not merely a synonym for human shield. In fact, the human screen is not only a human weapon. As I show in this archaeological exploration, the process of transformation of the human body into a screen translates also into the development of a new media technology that both allows to modulate the use of lethal force and shape the perception and political meaning of violence in the battlefield.</p> Nicola Perugini Copyright (c) 2021 Nicola Perugini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 306 333 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12261 How Far Is the Future? https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12262 <p>The pandemic and consequent economic fallout, intertwined with the climate crisis, has led to a recalibration of the distance that separates the present from the future. This essay draws on media theory to delineate some of the paradoxes involved in predicted or knowing when the future will have arrived during this period of ‘new normal’.</p> Karen Pinkus Copyright (c) 2021 Karen Pinkus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 334 345 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12262 Notes on the Proxemics of the ‘Non Place-Time’ https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12263 <p>During the period of confinement due to the pandemic emergency, the overly abused definition of ‘non place’ introduced in 1992 by Marc Augé seems to have found an involuntary and unexpected actualization, composing itself with the specular notion here defined as ‘non time’.<br>The space-time expansion due to the sudden absence of bodies in the urban space and to the forced alternation of the monochronic and the polychronic time is at the basis of the atypical urban experience lived in the weeks of domestic isolation, which has made evident even to the wider public how much the city is a complex multidimensional agglomeration where many intangible elements coexist with the material dimension of the city.<br>The notion of ‘non place-time’ is investigated through the analysis of the link between man, time and place and the reversal determined by the various space-time caesuras that occurred between people and between people and the collective scene of the city, as well as the definition of technological ‘immediate’ as an emerging co-constitutive process of personal experience and the environment.</p> Paola Puma Copyright (c) 2021 Paola Puma https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 346 365 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12263 Defying Distance https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12264 <p>In 2018 as part of my long-term project the <em>Archive of Gestures</em>, I created a participatory dance performance with three Palestinian artist refugees entitled <em>Gesturing Refugees</em>. The performance faced many obstacles during the creation period related to UK visa denial to the artists, which resulted in the creation process taking place digitally, as an attempt to defy the physical distance among the artists and later also between the artists and the audience. To insist on this formal and political choice, in 2020 I developed <em>Past-inuous</em>, an interactive dance video, created over a digital platform with eleven Palestinian dancers, most third generation refugees, some living in the diaspora and others in Palestine. Through the work, I investigated ways of defying distance between third generation Palestinian refugees, which was created by Israel’s regime of dispossession. I did that by experimenting with how a digital platform can be remediated into a creative space for rehearsal, creation and transmission of bodily archives, through an interactive dance video with the viewers. But also by reflecting on the technical issues and delays caused by specific political conditions of disadvantage which arise during such a process, and exploring ways of using these issues in the video itself, so as to reflect the creation process and involve the viewers, especially now that during the pandemic, working at distance through online platforms has become a collective global experience.</p> Farah Saleh Copyright (c) 2021 Farah Saleh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 366 379 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12264 Immediacy and Its Hidden Infrastructure: When Amazon Extends Its Delivery Times During the Covid-19 Pandemic https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12265 <p>During the confinement due to the Covid-19 pandemic, Amazon faced crushing demands. The firm chose to extend delivery times for non-essential in-stock goods and to hire more workers. These strategies contrast with Amazon’s usual core of business: making delivery always faster and replace as soon as possible most workers by robots. By describing this transient episode of voluntarily extended delivery times by Amazon and by inscribing it in the history of immediacy as a paradoxical horizon of mediations, as discussed in the field of media theory, the article shows that Amazon’s strategies of adaptation during the Covid-19 pandemic reveal once again what media studies had already emphasized: that many technological, logistic and human mediations are required to fulfill an online order as soon as possible, tangentially immediately. The article finally highlights an understated aspect of mediations: the importance of<br>economic factors in shaping our societies, where shrinking spatial distances by getting separate things closer ever faster is economically profitable in spite of hidden and disastrous consequences on work conditions, on the global organization of the retailing and circulation of goods, and on the environment.</p> Claire Salles Copyright (c) 2021 Claire Salles https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 380 395 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12265 Code, Desire and Conjuring: On the Magic Fabric of Contemporary Computing Technologies https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12266 <p>In this paper I endeavor to bridge the gap between the concepts of magic and of digital technology. I do this by focusing on the intersection between the magic spell and software or code. By scrutinizing the interplay between the (magic) formula and the way it is performed in order to achieve a specific impact, it becomes possible to describe a close proximity of the magic formula with contemporary software. Today, digital machines and their relevant algorithms are almost exclusively seen in the light of a narrow rational and technical concept. Historically, the ‘use’ of technology is much more diverse, and I argue out of this perspective that it is time to historicize the working structure of digital machines in a way, that they can be embedded within the long history of magic conceptions.</p> Heiko Schmid Copyright (c) 2021 Heiko Schmid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 396 407 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12266 Reshaping Teacher-Student Interaction in the Virtual Classroom: a Case Study https://img-journal.unibo.it/article/view/12267 <p>This paper presents an exploratory examination of video-mediated classroom interaction in School and University settings, a modality of teaching and learning which has recently experienced a rapid growth as a consequence of the COVID-19 emergency. Based on a corpus of audio and video recorded virtual classes, we analyze how instructors and students cope with the challenges of not being physically co-present and lacking direct visual contact in the virtual enviroment, and discuss how fundamental mechanisms of face-to-face classroom interaction –participants’ mutual orientation in the opening phase, speakers’ identification and recognition, as well as instructors’ actions like comprehension checks, solicitations for ques-tions/comments, questions and evaluations– are partially modified in the virtual environment, making it more complex, for instructors, to enhance students’ active participation. Final considerations are devoted to the possible implications of these preliminary findings.</p> Daniela Veronesi Ilaria Chizzoni Katia Raineri Veronica Schmalz Monika Taferner Copyright (c) 2021 Daniela Veronesi, Ilaria Chizzoni, Katia Raineri, Veronica Schmalz, Monika Taferner https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-08 2021-02-08 3 408 427 10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12267